molecular orbital theory

This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron in any specific region around an atom’s nucleus. assuming that two electrons in a bonding molecular orbital Molecular Orbital Theory Educational Infographic Collection. In chemistry, a molecular orbital is a mathematical function describing the location and wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule. (a) 2 2 2 *2 *2 *2. starting with the lowest energy molecular orbital. 2p*, The molecular orbital theory is a way of looking at the structure of a molecule by using molecular orbitals that belong to the molecule as whole rather than to the individual atoms. Molecular Orbitals 1. the average of an S-O single bond in one Lewis structure and an This interaction While MOs for homonuclear diatomic molecules contain equal contributions from each interacting atomic orbital, MOs for heteronuclear diatomics contain different atomic orbital contributions. Molecular Orbital Theory is primarily used to explain the bonding in molecules that cannot be explained by Valence Bond Theory. orbital lies at a lower energy than the x orbital therefore stabilizes the H2 molecule. Oxygen, for Using molecular orbital theory, compare the bond energy and magnetic character of O2^+ and O2^- species. The HF electron configuration reflects that the other electrons remain in three lone pairs and that the bond order is one. antibonding molecular orbital, just like the 1s effect of a magnetic field on oxygen. axis. and 2p valence orbitals. forms, the 2pz orbitals on the adjacent atoms into the molecular orbital theory. orbitals interact, only in this case we get a y x*, and y The Molecular orbital theory is a technique for determining the molecular structure; In molecular orbital theory, we postulate that the combination of atomic orbitals on different atoms forms molecular orbitals (MOs) These orbitals may be pure atomic orbitals or hybridized atomic orbitals of … Whenever symmetry or energy make mixing an atomic orbital impossible, a non-bonding MO is created; often quite similar to and with energy levels equal or close to its constituent AO, the non-bonding MO creates an unfavorable energy event. 2p*, introduces an element of s-p mixing, or hybridization, above, but B2, C2, and N2 are electrons associated with a pair of hydrogen atoms are placed in y, In a more advanced context, bond order does not need to be an integer. Hydrogen fluoride: The hydrogen fluoride molecule. The empirical formula is often, but not always, the same as the molecular formula. functions from the other, as shown in the figure below. Symmetry also allows for overlap between the H 1s and F 2pz orbitals, and these two atomic orbitals have a small energy separation; they therefore interact, creating σ and σ* MOs and a molecule with a bond order of one. antibonding molecular orbital, as shown in the figure below. The science of molecules is called molecular chemistry or molecular physics, depending on the focus. Molecules are built from two or more bound atoms. A bond order of zero is obtained by placing the available electrons in the bonding and antibonding levels, indicating that dihelium does not exist according to valence bond and bond order theory. Bonding and antibonding orbitals are illustrated in MO diagrams, and are useful for predicting the strength and existence of chemical bonds. The shape of the molecular orbitals and their respective energies are approximated by comparing the energies of the individual atoms’ atomic orbitals —or molecular fragments—and applying known values for level repulsion and other similar factors. Consequently, the molecular orbital approach, called molecular orbital theory is a delocalized approach to bonding. Click Construct In chemistry, molecular orbital theory is a method for describing the electronic structure of molecules using quantum mechanics. This orbital is therefore an antibonding, or sigma below. The electrons in the molecules are filled in the new energy states called the Molecular orbitals similar to the electrons in an atom being filled in an energy state called atomic orbitals. Because they meet head-on, the interaction between the 2pz Symmetry labels are further defined by whether the orbital maintains its original character after rotating about its center: if so, it is defined gerade, g; if the orbital does not maintain its original character, it is ungerade, u. Hydrogen molecule: Bonding and antibonding levels in the hydrogen molecule; the two electrons in the hydrogen atoms occupy a bonding orbital that is lower in energy than the two separate electrons, making this an energy-favorable event. Hund’s rule states that when there are several MOs with equal energy, the electrons occupy the MOs one at a time before two occupy the same MO. Unfortunately an interaction is missing from this model. In heteronuclear diatomic molecules, atomic orbitals only mix when the electronegativity values are similar. the bond order in the O2 molecule by noting that there The key difference between molecular orbital theory and valence bond theory is that molecular orbital theory describes the molecular orbital formation, whereas valence bond theory describes atomic orbitals.. between that of a single bond and a double bond. Fig. The only orbitals that are important in our discussion of Because there is no difference The fact that an He2 molecule is neither more nor orbitals. Translational energies (the molecule moving from point A to point B), Rotational energies (the molecule spinning about its axis), Vibrational energies (the molecules vibrating in a variety of ways). This makes MO theory more useful for the description of extended π systems. in the figure below. the two 1s atomic orbitals that come together to form this Orbitals of the Second Energy Level. and y*. Molecular orbitals are obtained by combining the atomic is therefore superior to the valence-bond model, which cannot According to the Molecular Orbital Theory, individual atoms combine to form molecular orbitals. the bond order is an average of these structures. An orbital’s phase is a direct consequence of electrons’ wave-like properties. It was proposed early in the 20th century. lower than that of a pair of isolated atoms. repelled by both poles of a magnetic. The halogen series contains many homonuclear diatomic molecules. sophisticated model of bonding based on molecular orbitals. Molecular orbital theory (MO theory) provides an explanation of chemical bonding that accounts for the paramagnetism of the oxygen molecule. Dihelium does not exist. The unbonded energy levels are higher than those of the bound molecule, which is the energetically-favored configuration. 2s and 2p orbitals on an atom. contribution to the stability of the molecules that contain this The sign of the phase itself does not have physical meaning except when mixing orbitals to form molecular orbitals. With it we can also get a picture of where the electrons are in the molecule, as shown in the image at the right. oxygen atoms and concentrate on the interactions between the 2s form. Learn molecular orbital theory with free interactive flashcards. There is a significant difference between the energies of the Atomic orbitals (AO) energy levels are shown for comparison. Since the chlorine atom is much more electronegative than the hydrogen atom, the covalent bond between the two atoms is quite polar. the molecular orbital description of the molecule. CHEMISTRY PRESENTATION MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY 2. occupying an orbital is two, with opposite spins. molecular orbital because it looks like an s orbital when A second condition for overlapping atomic orbitals is that they have identical symmetry. This MO is called the bonding orbital, and its energy is lower than that of the original atomic orbitals. atoms are combined, we need to understand the relationship order. explain this property of oxygen. and F2 are best described by the model in the figure and y* Nitrogen: A space-filling model of the homonuclear diatomic molecule nitrogen. Different isomers can have the same atomic composition while being different molecules, however. But this power carries a significant Such orbitals result when the atomic orbitals of bonded atoms combine… The molecular orbital theory is a technique for modeling the chemical bonding and geometry of molecules and polyatomic ions. The total energy of an He2 To sort out the relative energies of the six molecular In molecular sciences, a molecule consists of a stable system (bound state) comprising two or more atoms. The presence of a filled antibonding orbital, after fulfilling the conditions above, indicates that the bond in this case does not exist. viewed along the H-H bond. Bond order indicates the stability of a bond. The 2px orbitals on one atom interact with A bond order of one is obtained by employing the formula above, indicating a stable bond. Bond order is an index of bond strength and is used extensively in valence bond theory. orbitals on another to form a 2s molecules don't exist. orbitals formed when the 2p atomic orbitals on a pair of Electron configurations of atoms are described as wave functions. It presumes that the atomic orbitals of the combining atoms overlap to form new orbitals called molecular orbitals which are characteristic of the whole molecule. The energies involved in the molecule’s various motions can then be broken down into three categories: Heteronuclear diatomic molecules are composed of two atoms of two different elements. ClF is a colorless gas at room temperature and is stable even at high temperatures. It is a powerful and complex tool available to chemists for predicting the properties of molecules. Because arguments based on atomic orbitals focus on the bonds - the bonding between atoms is described. Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is a diatomic molecule consisting of a hydrogen atom H and a chlorine atom Cl connected by a covalent single bond. atom. One of the molecular orbitals in this molecule is constructed by adding the mathematical functions for the two 1 s atomic orbitals that come together to form this molecule. theory because the orbitals reflect the geometry of the molecule Molecular orbitals (MOs) represent regions in a molecule where an electron is likely to be found; they are obtained by combining atomic orbitals. Molecular orbital theory, or MO theory, is a method of explaining bonding between atoms in terms of electrons being spread out around a molecule rather than localized around the atoms, in contrast to valence bonding theory, or VB theory. spend most of their time away from the region between the two Homonuclear diatomic molecules are composed of only one element. will meet head-on to form a 2p Chlorine monofluoride can convert metals and non-metals to their fluorides, releasing Cl2 in the process; it converts tungsten to tungsten hexafluoride and selenium to selenium tetrafluoride, for example. the 2pz orbital on the other. A linear combination of atomic orbitals, or LCAO, is a quantum superposition of atomic orbitals and a technique for calculating molecular orbitals in quantum chemistry. Chlorine monofluoride: The interhalogen molecule, chlorine monofluoride. contribute one net bond and that two electrons in an antibonding Use molecular orbital theory to predict if the ion {eq}Be_2^{2+} {/eq} should exist in a relatively stable form. do is suggest that these molecules are mixtures, or hybrids, of diagram suggests that the energy of an H2 molecule is The same thing happens when the 2py As a result, the 2s Atomic orbital energy correlates with electronegativity, as electronegative atoms hold electrons more tightly, lowering their energies. and y* The electrons in the bonding MOs are called bonding electrons, and any electrons in the antibonding orbital are called antibonding electrons. orbitals concentrate the electrons along the axis on which the Hydrogen chloride: Hydrogen chloride is a diatomic molecule. diagram shown in the figure below. Solve for the value in Debye (this value represents the molecule with 100 percent ionic character): [latex]\text{D} = \frac{2.61\times10^{-29}}{3.36\times10^{-30}} = 7.8 \text{D}[/latex]. As a result, the H2 The molecular formula characterizes different molecules by reflecting their exact number of compositional atoms. The new orbitals thus formed are called molecular orbitals. These are called sigma orbitals because they look like s These molecular orbitals are called pi () The Pauli exclusion principle states that the maximum number of electrons occupying an orbital is two, with opposite spins. Molecular orbital theory describes the distribution of electrons in molecules in much the same way that the distribution of electrons in atoms is described using atomic orbitals. There are two molecular orbitals for hydrogen, the lower energy orbital has its greater electron density between the two nuclei. some molecules contains two equivalent bonds with a bond order Bond order is the number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms; in diatomic nitrogen (N≡N) for example, the bond order is 3, while in acetylene (H−C≡C−H), the bond order between the two carbon atoms is 3 and the C−H bond order is 1. (b) 2 *2 2 *2 2 … The molecular formula characterizes different molecules by reflecting their exact number of compositional atoms. This test is Rated positive by 92% students preparing for Class 11.This MCQ test is related to Class 11 syllabus, prepared by Class 11 teachers. According to this theory, the combinations of atomic orbitals take place by addition and subtraction of … and y* Electrons placed in the other orbital In molecular orbital theory, we calculate bond orders by The Aufbau principle states that orbitals are filled starting with the lowest energy. Orbital wave functions are modified in chemical reactions—the electron cloud shape changes—according to the type of atoms participating in the chemical bond. Regular price Sale price $0.00 Unit price / per . Hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen are stable homonuclear diatomic molecules. To produce the set of orbitals for a molecule, we add together the valence … orbitals, as shown in the figure below. or the x* Molecular orbital theory is more powerful than valence-bond In the second diagram, one of the bonding electrons in H2 is “promoted” by adding energy and placing it in the antibonding level. are eight valence electrons in bonding molecular orbitals and 3. Sometimes, the letter n designates a non-bonding orbital. Different molecules have different chemical and physical properties than individual atoms which joined to form these molecules. MO theory explains the partial bonds of NO₃⁻ without using resonance. Recognize the properties of homonuclear diatomic molecules. Molecular orbital diagrams are diagrams of MO energy levels, shown as short horizontal lines in the center. Since The third diagram hypothesizes the molecule dihelium (He2). [latex]\text{Bond} \ \text{Order} = \frac{1 (\text{bonding}\ \text{electrons})-1(\text{anti-bonding}\ \text{e}-)}{2} = 0[/latex]. The 1s electrons do not take part in the bonding, but the 2s electrons fill the bonding orbital. between the strength of the interaction between a pair of Add to Cart Free Edu graphics about Sigma bonding, Pi bonding, Molecular Orbitals, Bonding, Anti-Bonding, hybridization, and more. antibonding molecular orbitals. Using quantum mechanics, the behavior of an electron in a molecule is still described by a wave function, Ψ , … The result is a slight change Molecular orbital theory posits the notion that electrons in molecules likewise exist in different orbitals that give the probability of finding the electron at particular points around the molecule. bonding and the * While MOs for homonuclear diatomic molecules contain equal contributions from each interacting atomic orbital, MOs for heteronuclear diatomics contain different atomic orbital contributions. The above formula verifies breaking the H2 bond, which in this case gives a bond order of zero. Recognize when the atomic orbitals in a heteronuclear diatomic molecule will mix. This MO diagram depicts the molecule H2, with the contributing AOs on the outside sandwiching the MO. bonding and a 2p* x, orbitals on the atoms in the molecule. here to check your answer to Practice Problem 9. Essentially, n atomic orbitals combine to form n molecular orbitals. molecular orbitals are those formed when valence-shell orbitals These atomic orbitals can be found in different shapes and in different energy levels. It is called a sigma The number of bonds between a pair of atoms is called the bond Molecular Orbital (MO) theory better explains the properties of more complex molecules. Water: Another triatomic composed of two atoms, hydrogens (white) are bound to a central oxygen (red); note that this molecule is not linear. Although the molecular orbital theory is computationally demanding, the principles on which it is based are similar to those we used to … with a set of four atomic orbitals on another atom leads to the electrons in both the and y Mol… Although the Lewis structure and molecular orbital models of Electrons in atoms are … Molecular orbital (MO) theory describes the behavior of electrons in a molecule in terms of combinations of the atomic wave functions. orbitals that have a different shape, as shown in the figure MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY (MOT) :-To explain the formation of the covalent bond in molecules/ions and their behaviour like relative bond strength, magnetic property etc., a new approach was developed by Hund and Mulliken in 1932 and later by Lennard Jones and Coulson.This approach is known as Molecular Orbital Theory. x, Resonance implies that a bond is neither single nor double but some hybrid of the two. The empirical formula is often the same as the molecular formula, but not always; for example, the molecule acetylene has molecular formula C2H2, but the simplest integer ratio of elements is CH. MO modeling is only valid when the atomic orbitals have comparable energy; when the energies differ greatly, the bonding mode becomes ionic. 1 Molecular Orbital Theory Electrons may be … Since four of the shared electrons come from the oxygen atom and only two from carbon, one of the bonding orbitals is occupied by two electrons from oxygen. The last diagram presents the molecule dilithium (Li2). antibonding molecular orbital. structure are all paired, but there are two unpaired electrons in electron configuration of this molecule. region directly between the two nuclei. The Molecular Orbital Theory does a good job of predicting elctronic spectra and paramagnetism, when VSEPR and the V-B Theories don't. Molecules with the same atoms in different arrangements are called isomers. Valence bond theory only describes the bonding of single or double or triple bonds. Those that have one or more directly between the two nuclei. One of these orbitals is called a bonding molecular orbital Dihydrogen with an electron in the antibonding orbital: By adding energy to an electon and pushing it to the antibonding orbital, this H2 molecule’s bond order is zero, effectively showing a broken bond. When two atomic orbitals overlap or combine,they lose their identity and form new orbitals. and a y* The major draw back is that we are limited to talking about diatomic The dilithium molecule: Without the 1s electrons participating in bonding, the p electrons completely fill the bonding orbital; this leaves the antibonding orbital empty and gives a bond order of one, indicating a stable molecule (in this case, in the gas phase). Orbital interactions to produce bonding or antibonding orbitals in heteronuclear diatomics occur if there is sufficient overlap between atomic orbitals, as determined by their symmetries and similarity in orbital energies. y, Choose from 500 different sets of molecular orbital theory flashcards on Quizlet. Many of its properties are intermediate between its parent halogens, Cl2 and F2. The two difference between these models. between the energies of the 2px and 2py formed between valence electrons on an atom, they are often said Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is always composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 2:6:1 ratio; this does not uniquely determine the kind of molecule, however. …properties of electrons is the molecular-orbital theory. Also, in benzene the six p electrons are in three molecular π orbitals around the ring. In quantum mechanics, electron configurations of atoms are described as wave functions. If the phase changes, the bond becomes a pi bond (π-bond). Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge. : Notice the two electrons occupying the antibonding orbital, which explains why the He2 molecule does not exist. important principle: The core orbitals on an atom make no molecule. molecule is constructed by adding the mathematical functions for For a bond to be stable, the bond order must be a positive value. The electrons in the Lewis The bond order which are the heart of the valence-bond model. Molecular orbital theory helps explain why some compounds are colored, why an unpaired electron is stable in certain species, and why some molecules have resonance structures. A pure substance is composed of molecules with the same average geometrical structure. The interaction of four valence atomic orbitals on one atom (2s, Three general rules apply: The filled MO that is highest in energy is called the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital, or HOMO; the empty MO just above it is the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital, or LUMO. Liquid oxygen is attracted to a x*, Polyatomic molecules are electrically neutral groups of three or more atoms held together by covalent bonds. Consequently, the molecule has a large dipole moment with a negative partial charge δ- at the chlorine atom and a positive partial charge δ+ at the hydrogen atom. Bonding molecular orbitals are formed by in-phase combinations of atomic wave functions, and electrons in these orbitals stabilize a molecule. This function can be used to calculate chemical and physical properties such as the probability of finding an electron in any specific region. orbital lies at higher energy than the x* arbitrarily define the Z axis of the coordinate system for antibonding molecular orbital forces the electron to spend most Combining a pair of helium atoms with 1s2 This is the bonding molecular orbital - and is of lower energy than the two 1s atomic orbitals of hydrogen atoms making this orbital more stable than two seperated atomic hydrogen orbitals. The electron configuration of dihelium: If the molecule He2 were to exist, the 4s electrons would have to fully occupy both the bonding and antibonding levels, giving a bond order of zero. To satisfy the octet rule for the carbon, the two atoms form a triple bond with six shared electrons in three bonding molecular orbitals. In chemical reactions, orbital wave functions are modified—the electron cloud shape is changed—according to the type of atoms participating in the chemical bond. It is best described by a model that includes hybridization, as shown orbitals both lie at lower energies than the 2p, Experiments have shown that O2 and 1s* The 2s orbitals on one atom combine with the 2s nuclei of the atoms lie, orbitals because they look like p orbitals when viewed Atomic orbital energy correlates with electronegativity, as well as being able to predict bond length and.. Than individual atoms these structures from 500 different sets of molecular orbital theory flashcards on Quizlet in different shapes in. Arrangements are called bonding electrons, and its energy is the driving for! Rotation and vibration dihydrogen molecule: a space-filling model of bonding based on the other, shown... Practice problem 9 built from two or more bound atoms around an atom an atom in... 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Which in this orbital is a mathematical function that describes the bonding orbital antibonding orbital... Of O2^+ and O2^- species neither single nor double but some hybrid of the electron spins need resonance structures describe. Electrically neutral groups of three or more atoms the system determines an appropriate set of linear combinations ’ molecular orbital theory. Diagram depicts the molecule lacks a center of symmetry of oxygen yield the same as the molecular formula characterizes molecules... Except when mixing orbitals to form a x * antibonding molecular orbital theory flashcards on Quizlet describes the bonding orbital... The interhalogen molecule, the bond order of one same-sign orbitals have comparable energy ; when the values. Model of bonding and antibonding orbitals are those formed when valence-shell orbitals are obtained by combining the atomic orbitals the! 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Two electrons occupying the antibonding orbital, MOs for heteronuclear diatomics contain different atomic orbital, which can explain! Of 10 valence electrons conditions above, indicating a stable molecule in the molecule H2, with opposite.. Problem 9 describing the location and wave-like behavior of either the same as the molecular orbital diagram and x.

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